“Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves,
and, under a just God cannot retain it."
― Abraham Lincoln
Maryland was established with religious freedom for Catholics. The colonial economy was based on tobacco cultivated by Africans who had been enslaved.
Randolph Brandt was born about 1644 in the West Indies.
His wife was named Mary.
Their children included:
Mary Brandt (1664 married James Latimer),
Marcus Brandt and
Charles Bandt (1669, married Elizabeth Douglas).
The family settled in Charles Charles County, Maryland where Charles acquired large amounts of land. His land included Asher, Hammersmith, Barbadoes, and Greenweigh. Barbadoes is an 88 acre island in the Potomac River and is now called Theodore Roosevelt Island.
Whereupon Godfrey said he would goe to Church next Sonday, and gett what men he could there to joyne with those men he had already sent for to meete him in armes at Church that soe they might meete the troope at the head of Portobacco Creeke on Monday,
and then they would take Capt Randolph Brandt and tye him, and turne James Wheeler out of the troope, (they being the onely Roman Catholicks in the troope) that they might rescue ffendall, that he the sd Boyden came late to Church on Sonday purposely for feare of being engaged by Godfrey
Randolph was captain of a unit in the Maryland militia.
In November, 1678, the Assembly voted "Captain Randall Brandt four thousand nine hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco."
In 1693 Randolph Brandt was arrested for acts of contempt and misbehavior toward the government.
Randolph wrote his will in 1697, Charles was still a child and the will required him to be brought up as a Catholic.
Alert for Indians Olton and his Rangers patrolled Maryland's frontiers.
by Peter Kampa
from The Evening Sun, September 23, 1985
When the Baltimore Beltway was the Indian-ridden frontier of Baltimore County, Capt. John Oldton was an honored hero. He was the head of the armed scouts who ranged into the unsettled wilderness to watch and wait for marauders. It was this ranging that gave them the name Rangers and began a tradition still upheld by today's American army.
Oldton was tough enough and mean for the job. He was also overbearing, had a quick temper and toleratedno opposition, no criticism. When John Copas claimed that Oldton had picked up a stray heifer, he had to go to court in 1688 to get it back. A few years later, Oldton was back in court accused of slamming Dennis Garrett in the forehead with his proper 20-shilling sword. For more than a month, Garrett "did languish" from the blow and then "did dye." There were six eyewitnesses to the assault. Oldton was convicted and condemned to hang, but he appealed back to London. In time, he was "graciously pardoned" by their Majesties, William and Mary. The royal pardon indicated that Oldton had powerful friends in court. He had London origins and that may have helped him.
He also had married well since he settled in Baltimore County. His first wife was Anne Gorsuch, twice a widow and the sister of four land-holding brothers. Oldton himself took up a number of land grants, first in Back River, then Darley Hall, a tract of hundreds of acres that would now border on both sides of Harford Road and extend down to North Avenue. Later, Oldton would take up another tract to the west that he named Pemblicoe. Its 800 acres covered the area of the present race course, Pimlico.
Oldton didn't invent the Rangers. They are first mentioned in 1642, tough men and practiced woodsmen, mustered from time to time when some of the more distant plantations were threatened by stray Indians. The Rangers were controversial from the start, not because of the perceived need of patrolling but because of the cost of arming and maintaining the troopers. Maj. Samuel Gouldsmith, Capt. Randolph Brandt and Col. Ninian Beale all made their reputations in "discovering the Skulking Enemy," which meant the occasional party of Senecas or Oneidas out raiding sometime between spring and harvest. Winters, they rested.
By 1692, the frontier had spread inland so a more permanent scheme for the Rangers was established. One garrison or fort was placed at New Scotland, at the falls of the Potomac; another in Anne Arundel County, and a third in Baltimore County, built at the head of a branch of Jones Falls that now bears the name Slaughterhouse Run. This fort or garrison, parts of which are still standing, gave its name to both Garrison Road and Garrison Forest. The location was a strategic one then. It was close to where two ancient Indian roads or trails crossed each other. One road, from the northwest, had long been used by members of the Five Nations for their hunting or raids on the more docile tribes of southern Maryland. The other, from the northeast, was used by the Delawares. Close to the garrison, several cabins for cooperative Indian scouts were built. Other cabins or outposts were located as far away as Deer Creek in what is now Harford County.
Another was in the fork of the Gunpowder. Between these safe points, the Rangers patrolled, clearing brush and marking trails, felling trees that obstructed views and checking on the small Indian settlements that then were dotted around the county. The idea was to make a fuss and be seen a warning that the white colonists were prepared. Rangers were exposed to ambushes and attacks, though few are recorded. They worked in teams, half the garrison on patrol from one Saturday to the next, while the other half rested in the fort. On Sunday, Rangers were supposed to assemble and honor the Lord's Day. Drink was forbidden, prayer encouraged. They were supplied not only with carbines, muskets, powder, shot and "grenadoes" but also with Bibles, catechisms and hefty discourses on worship. The Ranger life was both dull and dangerous. Captain Oldton once reported that three of his men refused to stay the winter. One was described as having a "morose disposition," perhaps owing to overexposure to pious but gloomy works. Gov. Francis Nicholson made sure they got their back pay and even sent along "ten dollars to drink the King's health."
Fort life itself could be perilous. At the New Scotland fort, John Baker's horse ambled out of the pasture. He went out of the fort to bring it back. The Rangers heard a cry for help, then silence. A rescue party found him mutilated, his head and right arm severed and carried away. Ranger commanders were required to report to the governor once a month. One time, Oldton wrote that his men had "ranged and made discovery of all the Good Lands back of our Road and found a great many Indian Cabins and Tents where we marked trees and sett up our names." The Potomac station one year had not met or seen any Indians except two who strolled in for a little conversation.
When the Indian threat diminished, the Rangers were directed to bring in all suspicious persons traveling without passes. Runaway servants were sometimes caught but a greater worry was deserting seamen. They would come into Maryland on the tobacco convoys, jump ship and then attempt to make it to pirate ships in Philadelphia by traveling north up river valleys. By 1698, the Rangers were largely disbanded. Oldton visited England before returning to die in Baltimore County in 1709. Oldton's house was burned down, whether by accident or by an old eneiny, we don't know.
A moiety is one of two equal parts.
Personal property can be called personalty (personality), goods, chattels, articles, or movable property. It includes both animate or inanimate property.
Seals were used to authenticate documents and men were expected to have a personal die. Records in deed books are copies and signatures are usually in the clerk’s handwriting. The clerk drew a circle around the word “seal” to indicate that the original document was sealed.
from Baltimore: Biography
edited by Clayton Colman Hall
Captain Randolph Brandt, . . .immigrated to Maryland in the year 1674, bringing with him his wife Mary, daughters Mary and Judith, and son Randolph. That he had a son Marcus Brandt, who remained in Barbadoes, we learn from his will, recorded in Liber A., No. 2, fol. 190, Charles County Wills, as follows:
I, Randolph Brandt, of the Province of Maryland, give and bequeath to my Deare and loving sons Marcus Brandt now residing in the Island of Barbadoes 500 acres of land lying in Charles county in the Province aforesaid, called The Expectation, etc.
Also I give the said Marcus one certaine house with the land and other appurtenances thereto belonging or in any wise appurteyning in the said Island of Barbadoes late in Possession of my father deceased; to him or his lawful heirs, and failing to have heirs, then to my son Randolph Brandt, and his heirs; and in default of heirs, then to my next heir.
3rd. I give to my son Randolph two hundred (200) acres of land on Potomac River, called Hammer Smith, and to his heirs, but in default of heirs, to the next male heir of my body.
5th. To my son Charles the moiety one half of land where I reside, West side of "Piccawaxen Creek" containing four hundred and fifty (450) acres, also the moiety of two hundred (200) acres on the Potomac River called Green Weigh.
6th. To my son Jacob Brandt and his heirs one half of a moiety of land where I live called Asher, containing four hundred and fifty (450) acres, also the moiety of two hundred (200) acres called Green Weigh, on Potomac River in "Accokeek Neck." Sons Charles and Jacob to be brought up in the Catholic Faith.
(Signed) Randolph Brandt.
Captain Randolph Brandt was commanding a troop of horse in Charles county, Maryland, in the year 1678, four years after his arrival in the Province. Coming to Maryland as the son of the King's Commissioner, who had before his residence in Barbadoes been one of the influential Court circle at Hammersmith, we find him perpetuating the places of residence of his father and himself in his patents of land which descended for generations—these were Hammersmith, Barbadoes, Greenweigh, etc. Randolph Brandt was a member of the House of Assembly of Maryland from 1671 to 1675.
Lord Baltimore, to whom Captain Randolph Brandt was very close, always signed his letters of instructions or commendation "your loving friend C. Baltimore," a term of endearment reserved for the favored few by this most distinguished and aristocratic of the Proprietaries, descendant of the Lords Arundell of Wardour Castle, and in his own right a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. His courage, diplomacy and devotion to duty characterize Captain Randolph Brandt's career in Maryland, and mark him as one of her noblest founders of Colonial Maryland families.
Of the sons and daughters of Captain Brandt, Charles [Brandt] only is of direct interest to this memoir. In his father's will, dated 1697, Charles Brandt is mentioned as a minor, instructions being given that he be brought up in the Catholic faith.
He married Elizabeth Douglas. His will, proved March 10th, 1714, is recorded in Liber W. B., No. 5, page 692, Annapolis Wills. To his son Jacob he leaves a gold seal ring, saddle, holsters, pistols, sword, belt and young horse; two silver spoons to daughter Elizabeth; to daughter Sarah, leather chairs, pewter, etc. No land mentioned, that going by law of entail to his son Charles Brandt.
Jacob Brandt, son of Charles and Elizabeth (Douglas) Brandt, married Mary. He was evidently a Catholic. He never held any office in the Province, as he lived after Maryland was under the rule of Protestants, and when Catholics were not permitted to hold office here.
Cecil Calvert (1605 -1675), 2nd Baron Baltimore was the first governor of Maryland. Phillip Calvert (1626–1682), was the 5th governor from 1660 to1665. Charles Calvert (1637 – 1715), 3rd Baron Baltimore inherited the colony in 1675.
Charles County is in south central Maryland and was created in 1658. The first settlers were mainly English tobacco planters, their indentured servants and enslaved people. Many of of the settlers were Roman Catholic.
The county, as originally laid out, also included parts of present
day Calvert, Prince George's and St. Mary's Counties.
Charles County Circuit Court, Birth, Deaths & Marriage Records, Liber Q
Douglas, Elizabeth, d/o John Duglas, b. 26 Apr 1673 (also noted as 6 Apr 1673 E. 126)
Brandt, (Brant), Randolph, Chas. County, 29th Dec.y 1697; 10th Feb., 1698
. . .
to son Charles and hrs., ½ of dwelling plantation, Ashar, 450 A. on E. side Piccawaxen Ck., lately leased by Peter Carr, and ½ of Greenwigh . . .
. . .
Testator desires sons Charles and Jacob brought up in the Roman Catholic faith.
Test: Walter Storey, Edward Fitzgerald, Thos. Thrift, Patrick Kelly. 6.222
Testis (Test) is latin for witness. Testes is the plural.
Piccowaxen Creek is just south of Morgantown, Maryland. It has been spelled as Pickawaxon, Pickiawaxen, Pickwixon, Pyckywaxen and Pykawaxon in Douglas family documents.
1642-1753 Rent Rolls Charles County, Maryland Hundred - Piccawaxen or William and Mary Rent Roll
page/Sequence: 288-4 Asher: 400 acres;
Possession of - 225 Acres - Brandt, Charles
Surveyed 25 July 1649 for Thomas Petite near Cedar point was Escheated [reverted to a lord or the state] to his lands and afterwards granted to Capt Randall Brandt 1684
The first European settlements in Maryland were made in 1634 when English settlers created a permanent colony.
Charles County Circuit Court, Birth, Deaths & Marriage Records, Liber Q
The will of Charles Brandt, dated 12 February 1713/14 and proved on 10 March 1713/14, named wife Elizabeth and children Jacob, Elizabeth and Sarah.
Charles Brandt 36B.97 A Charles County £145.19.0 #3646 Jan 31 1714
(of Prince George's County.) The amount of the inventory is equivalent to 35,028£
Payments to; Rev. Mr. Kee, Edward Diggs, Philip Briscoe, George Bellows, Edward Anderson, Edward Gardiner, William Doulton, Anne Cugnitt.
Executrix: Elisabeth Howard (relict), now wife of Thomas Howard.
Mister ( Mr.) was derived from master and Mrs. and Miss were derived from mistress. They indicated people of superior social status in colonial America.
Prince George's County, Maryland was created in 1696 from portions of Charles, and Calvert Counties. It was divided into six districts called hundreds: Mattapany, Patuxant, Collington, Mount Calvert, Piscattoway, and New Scotland. A part the county became Frederick County in 1748.